Remain compliant with international standards.
China does not follow international accounting policies and guidelines, although it has been moving in this direction for a while and with its accession to the World Trade Organisation will be fully compliant within a few years. Many of the accounting regulations are the same or similar to international practice, however it is important for organisations in China to understand the differences.
Tax deductibility for instance is different and a lack of understanding of this could lead to significant tax charges on such items as intercompany transactions. China treats transfer pricing with high importance and as with many other countries it wants its fair share of the international tax pie. Meanwhile proper planning and compliance can reduce an organisation’s tax burden.
Another area where differences lie is in depreciation of capitalised assets. China specifies that companies must use the straight-line method unless they obtain approval from the Ministry of Finance for use of an accelerated method. The period over which a company may depreciate its assets also can vary to that of the holding companies own country’s accounting practice. The depreciation rates per China’s income tax law are:
- For houses and buildings: 20 years;
- For airplanes, trains, shipping vessels, machinery, mechanical apparatus, and other production equipment: 10 years;
- For fixtures, tools and furnishings related to production and business operations: 5 years;
- For transport other than airplanes, train, ships: 4 years;
- For electronic equipment; 3 years.
Companies therefore on the one hand need to comply with their HQ’s requirements, being usually their countries GAAP, whilst on the other hand maintain compliance with China’s rules and regulations. LehmanBrown provides assistance in setting up accounting procedures and systems to bridge this.
In Western countries, although amendments and revisions to accounting practices or standards do not have legal binding power, they are formulated according to an existing national legal framework which is provided in most cases by Companies Ordinance or Acts. Companies Ordinance or Acts together with other regulations applicable to individual industries, such as the Banking Ordinance for financial institutions and Listing Rules or Securities Acts for listed or public companies, provide a framework upon which accounting professional bodies formulate accounting and auditing standards. These standards form the basis for establishing accounting principles, and perhaps conventions, that allow enterprises flexibility in formulating their own accounting policies best suited to their individual circumstances. The ultimate objective, in a nutshell, is to produce a set of financial statements that are ‘true and fair’.
Until 1994, China lacked a regulatory framework on which accounting and auditing standards could be set since the country’s first national Companies Laws were not effective until 1 July 1994. The lack of such a framework also rendered the formulation of other regulations, such as the national Securities Laws and Listing Regulations, more difficult and time consuming.
Nevertheless, having realised the need for establishing acceptable accounting principles to enable PRC enterprises to attract foreign investment or have their stocks listed on overseas markets, the MOF promulgated a separate set of accounting regulations for selected joint stock companies in January 1992.
In addition, MOF was made effective on July 1, 1993, and were the first set of accounting standards – Accounting Standards for Enterprises – applicable to all PRC enterprises. Although it might be confusing at times which accounting regulations or standards should be applied, together with the then Accounting Regulations for Foreign Investment Enterprises of the PRC, they have provided relatively uniform accounting practices for enterprises to follow in preparing their financial statements. More importantly because of the lack of a complete regulatory and conceptual framework, these accounting rules or regulations are so comprehensive that they encompass accounting concepts, disclosure requirements, accounting entries, control procedures, record keeping and some aspects of auditing requirements and liquidation.
With the introduction of the Accounting Law in 1999, the Regulations on Financial Reporting of Enterprises in 2000 and the Accounting Systems for Business Enterprises in early 2001, which harmonises the different accounting standards and regulations applicable to different enterprises, the framework of modern Chinese accounting has finally become clear. With the implementation of the Accounting Systems for Business Enterprises in 2006, accounting standards in China have become more convergent with IAS and IFRS.
The general accounting principles or concepts employed in China’s accounting regulations include accuracy, completeness, consistency, comparability, timeliness, materiality, accrual basis, matching, prudence, substance over form and going concern. By and large, the principles mirror those of IAS and IFRS . Other major features of these regulations are as follows:
- The historical cost convention is prescribed. Assets are required to be recorded at purchase cost (less any necessary impairment provision) and revaluations are strictly prohibited except when allowed by other State provisions.
- The concept of fair market value is not commonly used due to the limited existence of open markets.
- These regulations also require companies to use the calendar year, which is January 1 to December 31, as their financial year.
- The double-entry bookkeeping method should be adopted. Records in accounts and books have to be made in Renminbi (Yuan) (the lawful currency of the PRC). Transactions and balances denominated in foreign currencies have to be converted into Renminbi at the official rate, which may differ from the current market rate. All records and balances of transactions made in foreign currencies and the exchange rate used must be maintained for reference.
- A clause in these regulations specifically requires the appropriation of a collective Welfare Fund and a Statutory Reserve Fund from profit after tax.
- Due to the infancy of the new systems, certain footnote disclosures may not be as comprehensive as those acceptable elsewhere in the world. Yet, in certain areas, the Chinese standards are extremely stringent. This includes disclosing the corporate identity of related parties and commenting on the fairness of transactions conducted between related parties, and preparing the cash flow statements using both the direct and indirect methods.
The old standards are neither broad nor flexible enough to allow discussion or maneuverability on particular subjects. For the first time, ASBE gives management the authority to exercise professional experience and judgment. While the setting of the ASBE has in theory narrowed the gap between accounting issues in China and those of the Western world, the rigour of applying the ASBE may vary from province to province and from company to company.
Both the Accounting system and Accounting standards constitute an integral part of China’s unified accounting system. As administrative documents, they set out the rules for accounting such as the recognition, measurement, disclosure and reporting of accounting elements. While both are formulated and promulgated by the MOF, certain differences exist between the two.
Firstly, in terms of the scope of application, specific accounting standards are mostly applicable to joint stock limited companies although some of them also apply to other enterprises. As for the Accounting System, apart from joint stock limited companies, other qualified enterprises may also adopt the system but prior approval is required for state-owned enterprises wishing to implement the system.
Secondly, the Accounting System covers all aspects of an enterprise’s transactions and events. In other words, if an enterprise falls within the scope of the Accounting System, the accounting treatment of all its transactions and events must be handled according to the stipulations of the system. As for specific accounting standards, they only govern certain transactions and events or certain accounting aspects of an enterprise. For instance, all the 13 specific accounting standards issued to date merely deal with specific transactions and events of an enterprise.
Thirdly, stipulations concerning the recognition, measurement, disclosure and reporting of accounting elements contained in the specific accounting standards are more general, with no stipulations on how accounting records should be made. By comparison, stipulations in the Accounting System are more specific, giving detailed rules on the account titles and instructions for use.